History of Tea: Health and Healing Properties

For more than 4000 years now, tea has been a faithful staple in many cultures and countries around the world. Used as a sustaining liquid for those suffering from infectious disease, there are many believers who have always asserted that tea holds powerful healing properties. In some cases, they believe that tea can actually cure ailments and sickness. New emerging studies are elevating these assumptions from myth to scientific reality, providing significant evidence that tea is indeed a source of health and contains legitimate healing properties.

Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, second only to water, and in many parts of the world, green and black teas are mass produced from the plant Camilla Sinensis. Because of the way the beverage is brewed, it is also one of the safest beverages made on the planet. This is because it is made with boiling water until it is sterile. It is this process that eradicates just about every type of bacteria or virus commonly found in water.

For centuries, tea has not only helped promote health, it also has served as a as a social outlet (tea time), battlefield sedative (the British for years served their wounded tea on the battle field as a way to calm them), and has played a major role in at least one revolution (the Boston Tea Party).

Pirates used to raid tea ships and bounties were put on these pirates’ heads, sometimes even surpassing the bounties placed on pirates that raided gold and silver ships. Rumor has it that this beverage was so popular in England and the colonies that during the American War for Independence, tea was still served in many of the thirteen colonies under a collection of aliases.

Throughout this time, however, tea was also believed to possess qualities that promoted good health and it was believed that tea could help a sick or injured person heal. For centuries, this was merely attributable to antidotal experience, with no scientific foundation on which to base those beliefs. Recently, however, detailed research done by an array of colleges, universities, and research centers have focused on teas positive properties.

Japan and China initially carried out the lion-share of this research, which primarily focused on their tea-of-choice: green tea. Europe and the United States, though, have begun to get in on the act, focusing on green and black tea and the results have been nothing short of astounding.

Not only have many of the alleged healthful properties been certified, researchers have also identified other, previously unknown qualities of tea that have proven that the beverage possesses qualities that can fight cancer, ward off tumors, and prevent the introduction of free radicals into the body.

This results of these tests indicated that because teas possess a high level of the antioxidant tea polyphenols, it is a great disease fighter. Research has shown that not only can tea fight cancer and ward off tumors and other defects; it also is can reduce the risk of heart disease.

As researchers have discovered these properties, they also have been able to map out the chemical composition of tea and pinpoint what they believe are the critical properties of this near wonder-drug.

These findings have allowed researchers to begin to understand what makes tea so effective in healing and promoting health. The most productive tests have come in the form of multi-disciplinary approaches, which consider data from epidemiology and field studies, laboratory tests in animals and historical accounts that are compared to current testing results. Researchers have tested tea against many different ailments and the results have shown that it is one of the most effective methods that a person can employ to ensure that they are able to adequately fight against any of these sicknesses. The jury, however, is still out, as tea’s potential is only just now beginning to be understood.

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History Of Linux

Linux has a rich history. It is essential to understand Linux's history in order to understand the philosophy behind Linux's programming. This guide hopes to cover what Linux is really about, show you its history, why it was formed, and a brief description of its capabilities and how it operates.

What is Linux?

Linux is a freely distributed operating system that behaves like the Unix operating system. Linux was designed specifically for the PC platform and takes advantage of its design to give users comparable performance to high-end UNIX workstations. Many big-name companies have joined the Linux bandwagon such as IBM and Compaq, offering systems pre-installed with Linux. Also, many companies have started Linux packages, such as Red Hat, Corel, and Samba. However, they can only charge for services and documentation packaged with the Linux software. More and more businesses are using Linux as an efficient and more economical way to run their networks.

Linux is a complete multitasking, multi-user operating system that behaves like UNIX in terms of kernel behavior and peripheral support. Linux has all the features of UNIX and boasts of its open source code and mainly free utilities.

The Linux kernel was originally developed for the Intel 80386, which was developed with multitasking as one of its features. The kernel is the lowest-level core factor of the operating system. The kernel is the code that controls the interface between user programs and hardware devices, the scheduling of processes to achieve multitasking, and many other aspects of the system. The Linux kernel is a monolithic kernel; all the device drivers are part of the kernel proper. Despite the fact that most of Intel's CPUs are used with single-tasking MS-DOS, Linux makes good use of the advanced multitasking features built into the CPU's instruction set. Linux supports demand paging, which means that only the sections of a program that are necessary are read into RAM. Linux also offers support for copy-on-write, a process that if more than one copy of a particular application is loaded, all tasks can share the same memory. When large memory requirements are needed and only small amounts of physical RAM are available, Linux has another feature called swap space. Swap space allows pages of memory to be written to a reserved area of a disk and treated as an extension of physical memory. By moving pages between the swap space and RAM, Linux can, in effect, act as if it had much more physical RAM than it does, with the cost of some speed due to the hard drive's slower access. Linux also supports diverse file systems, as well as those compatible with DOS and OS/2. Linux's file system, ext2fs, is intended for best possible use of the disk.

The History of Linux

Linux is a freely distributable version of UNIX. UNIX is one of the most popular operating systems for networking worldwide because of its large support base and distribution. Linus Torvalds, who was then a student at the University of Helsinki in Finland, developed Linux in 1991. It was released for free on the Internet and generated the largest software-development phenomena of all time. Because of GNU software (GNU being an acronym for Gnu's Not UNIX) created by the Free Software Foundation, Linux has many utilities to offer. The Free Software Foundation offers royalty-free software to programmers and developers. From the very beginning, Linux has been entwined with GNU software. From 1991, Linux quickly developed on hackers' web pages as the alternative to Windows and the more expensive UNIX systems. When Red Hat released its commercial version of Linux packaged with tech support and documentation, the floodgates broke and the majority of the public became aware of Linux and its capabilities. Now more and more new users are willing to try Linux on their personal PCs and business users are willing to use Linux to run their networks. Linux has become the latest phenomenon to hit the PC software market.

Linux is a unique operating system in that it is an active participant in the Open Source Software movement. Linux is legally covered by the GNU General Public License, also known as GPL. Open Source software is free but is not in the public domain. It is not shareware either. GPL allows people to take free software and distribute their own versions of the software. However, the vendors who sell free software cannot restrict the rights of users who purchase the software. In other words, users who buy GPL software can make copies of it and distribute it free of charge or for a fee. Also, distributors of GPL software must make it clear that the software is covered by the GPL and must provide the complete source code for the software at no cost. Linux embodies the Open Source model. Open source applies to software for which the source code is freely available for anyone to download, alter, and redistribute. Linux is the perfect operating system for hackers because they can freely download newer versions of the Linux kernel or other Linux utilities of the Internet and instantly change its source code to fix any software bugs found. That way, bugs can be fixed in a matter of hours as opposed to days and weeks. Beta testers and code debuggers are unorganized and spread throughout the world, but surprisingly, they have managed to quickly debug Linux software efficiently and cooperate online through the use of the Internet.

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History of Harley Davidson

The first Harley-Davidson motorcycle was not made by accident. In 1902, a 21-year-old man by the name of William S. Harley created a design for a one-cylinder motorcycle. A year later in 1903, he partnered up with 20-year-old Arthur Davidson to assemble the first Harley-Davidson Motorcycle.

Harley-Davidson's first real transaction came courtesy of Henry Meyer, a friend of Harley and Davidson from school. He bought one of the racing motorcycles they two had built. This sparked the beginning of over a hundred years of striving business. They had no idea that some years later, the business they started would be worth millions of dollars, with thousands of employees, and millions of riders.

The first Harley-Davidson motorcycles were built in a 10 by 15 foot wooden shack. It had "Harley-Davidson Motor Company" carved into the wooden door.

Later in 1903, Arthur's brother Walter joined the two founders in the new business. This turned out to be a good decision for all three young men. Towards the end of 1903, the first Harley-Davidson dealer opened in Chicago, Illinois and made its first sale.

The first Harley-Davidson was made with the intention of being a racing machine. It was powered with a one-cylinder combustion engine. The first year of selling motorcycles, Harley-Davidson produced eleven which sold rather quickly.

In 1905, a Harley-Davidson motorcycle wins a race, and the first real full-time employee joins the company. 1908 was a landmark year for Harley, with their first addition to a police department in Detroit. Toward the end of the decade in 1909, Harley-Davidson introduced their first V-twin powered motorcycle. It had 7 horsepower, and became wildly popular.

In 1910, the infamous "Bar and Shield" logo that makes Harley-Davidsons famous was created.

Even today, every Harley bears the logo that has made them famous. The F-Head engine was introduced in 1911 and would become the engine of choice for Harley-Davidson until 1929. The year 1912 brought more expansion with the building of a six-story factory. The famous sidecars for Harleys are made available in 1914.

Three years later, Harley-Davidson Motor Company partnered with the U.S. Military to aid in the war. Nearly one third of all motorcycles produced in 1917 were sent over to the war. Over 20,000 motorcycles were used by the military by the end of World War I. A year later, the motorcycles sent to the military goes up to almost half of all those produced that year. Almost all of them were produced by Harley-Davidson Motor Company.

The growth of Harley-Davidson Motor Company was not mistake. By 1920, Harley-Davidson was the most popular motorcycle producer in the world. They had just about 2000 separate dealers in 67 different countries. Leslie Parkhurst used a Harley-Davidson to break 23 different speed records in that year as well. In 1925, the gas tanks that are seen on Harley-Davidson motorcycles today are created. The teardrop shape gas tanks quickly take off, and all Harleys after that follow suit. Also that year Joe Petrali started racing for Harley-Davidson. He would become one of the best Harley dirt-track racers of all time. 1926 brings a year of backtracking. Harley-Davidson decides to bring back single cylinder engines for the first time since 1918.

Side and Overhead valve configurations are offered by the company.

The first time dual cam engines are offered to the public was in 1928. They were available in the JD series of motorcycles. This bike was capable of reaching speeds from 85 all the way to 100 miles per hour. The definition of reliability came in 1929 with the release of the 45 cubic inch V-twin engine. Also known as the flat head, it was so reliable that it was even available all the way up to the year 1973. This is a big accomplishment for the company started in a 10 by 15 foot shack.

The world of racing rang in 1930 when Bill Davidson, Jr. won the Jack Pine Endurance Contest. He had a nearly perfect score of 997 out of 1,000 possible points. It turns out that every winner of that race is using a Harley-Davidson Motor Company motorcycle. All competition for Harley is gone in America, with the exception of Indian. Indian and Harley-Davidson are the only two motorcycle producers all the way through 1953. In 1932 the popular 45 cubic inch three-wheeled Servi Car begins a reign as a police car for 41 years. It was used all the way up to year 1973.

When the depression hit, Harley-Davidson had to do something to keep sales going. They decided to start putting an "eagle" graphic on all the gas tanks of all motorcycles. This was the first time that graphics are put on the motorcycles, other then special order graphics that had been ordered by different customers. This started the trend that still stands today of putting graphics on Harley-Davidsons. The "eagle" would represent the company's ability to fight the struggles of the depression. It was hard, the Harley continued to grow.

Harley-Davidson even aided its own competition in 1935 when they licensed all their machinery, blueprints, and tools to an Asian company, Sankyo. This sparked a new motorcycle industry in Japan called Rikuo. Joe Petrali continues his reign as the greatest on the dirt track by winning all thirteen of the American races.

He also breaks four of the American Motorcycle Professional Association's records in the process. This is done with a Harley-Davidson motorcycle.

1936 was the year of the "knucklehead," a 41 cubic-inch engine that offered more horsepower then its previous counterparts. Later on that same year, Harley-Davidson offered a 60 cubic inch machine. Harley-Davidson was making bigger engine motorcycles, and supplying more horsepower in the process. The first WL models are offered in 1937. The excellence continues for Joe Petrali when he breaks the land speed record at 136 mph on a Harley-Davidson 61 cubic-inch overhead engine motorcycle. In Daytona, Florida, Ben Campanale wins the Daytona 200 on a 3.6 mile beach course.

World War II begins for America in 1941.This meant that motorcycle production almost went totally to military motorcycles. Civilian motorcycles stopped being made because of the high need for war vehicles. This also meant that all Harley-Davidson service shops would turn into places for military mechanics to learn the ins and outs of the Harley-Davidson motorcycle. The XA model begins production. It is made for the purpose of being a desert machine, but the deal is cancelled when U.S. moves out of West Africa. Only a little over a thousand of these XA's were made.

In 1943, Harley-Davidson receives an excellence award from the Army and Navy for its wartime production. They would later receive three more of these awards. The military personnel begin to like the Harley-Davidsons over seas, and this would show when they returned back home.

By 1945, World War II is over. And Harley-Davidson has supplied our military with over 90,000 land vehicles. This accounts for much of the U.S.'s hardware during the war.

Later on that year, production begins again for civilian cycles. In 1946, Harley-Davidson introduces the 45 cubic-inch flathead engine racing motorcycle. It turned out to be a real gem, known as one of the best ever made. 1947 was a good year for the company with the opening of a new production facility and the release of what would become a symbol of Harley-Davidson-the leather jacket. A Harley-Davidson motorcycle wins the first of three straight AMA Grand National Championships.

Harley-Davidson won 18 of the 24 national dirt racing championships in 1950. They also set 5 new records. Harley-Davidson was truly a dominant force in the dirt racing arena. In 1952, a side valve K model is introduced to keep up the smaller motorcycles being produced in Great Britain. This would eventually change from model K to the sportster.

The 50th anniversary of Harley-Davidson is celebrated in 1953. For the celebration, a "V" logo is created to put on the fenders of all the motorcycles made in that year. It reads "50 years-American Made." Also this year, Indian Motorcycle Company goes out of business. This makes Harley Davidson the only American motorcycle company for the next 46 years. A monopoly comparable to Microsoft.

1955 was another good year for Harley-Davidson with the start of a domination of the Daytona 200 race victories. Harley-Davidson would be responsible for the next 7 years of victory for racers. Show business even gets in on the action in 1956 when young Elvis Presley poses on the cover of the Enthusiast.

Harley-Davidson motorcycles had really hit mainstream and were growing more and more popular in America. 1957 was the year of the Sportster, a motorcycle that would become known as a "super bike." It was another tradition started that rings true even today.

In 1960, Harley-Davidson introduced the only scooter they would ever produce, the Topper. The top 14 finishers, including the winner, at the Daytona 200 are riding Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The year 1962, Harley-Davidson made some business decisions. They decided to buy a 60 percent share in the Tomahawk Boat Company. They understood what this industry could do for Harley, so they made a factory that became operational in 1963.

The three wheeled Servi-car is released in 1964. It is the first vehicle that Harley-Davidson has produced that has an electric starter. Records were broken in 1965 when George Roeder broke the speed record on a Streamliner with a 255 cc engine, going an average of 177 miles per hour. Bart Michael, a Harley-Davidson dirt track racer, wins the AMA's for the next two years. A "shovelhead" engine is the new replacement engine in the year 1967. In 1969, Harley-Davidson merged with a leisure product company, the American Machine and Foundry Company.

With Harley-Davidson in full force, some changes had to be made in 1970. A new Sportster, XR-750 is introduced.

It was in compliance with the new rules of the AMA. Later on that same year, Cal Ramburn set the land speed record for motor cycle on a bike with one speedster engine. He averaged over 265 miles per hour in the record-breaking run. A year later, a new type of motorcycle is released, the FX 1200. It is a cruiser motorcycle, which fit the demand of that year. This was also the year that Harley-Davidson first started to produce snowmobiles.

A new race machine is offered in 1972, the XR-750. It wins the AMA's big race that year, and also becomes the dominant dirt track bike for the next three decades. By 1973, Harley-Davidson moves it main assembly factory to a 400,000 square foot building located in York, Pennsylvania. It greatly improves the company's ability to produce motorcycles. The company pretty much has a monopoly over the motorcycle industry. Starting in 1975, Harley-Davidson wins four straight AMA Grand Dirt Track Championships. Three of those wins coming from racing legend Jay Springsteen.

In 1977, the FXS low-rider is introduced. It has drag style handle bars and a unique paint scheme. Its name fit, because it put the rider truly "lower." Two years later, the "Fat Bob" was released. The "fat" in the name is due to the two gas tanks on the bike, while the "bob" stands for the abnormal fenders that were part of the motorcycle.

In 1980, Harley-Davidson released yet another motorcycle, the FLT. The FLT included a vibration dampening system. Its engine and 5-speed transmission was bolted together. Later on that same year, a Kevlar belt replaces the chain on the main drive of ever Harley-Davidson motorcycle that was produced after that date. The AMA Grand goes yet again to a Harley-Davidson driver.

In 1981, a buyback of Harley-Davidson is completed from AMF by thirteen top level executives. Scott Parker would join Harley-Davidson's team to go on to be their most successful racer ever, with 93 victories, and 9 major titles in a 10 year span.

In 1982, Harley-Davidson got smart and implemented a Materials As Needed (MAN) plan. This said that parts and accessories were only going to be made as they were needed. This was a good decision by the company, and this greatly cut down on their production and warehouse costs.

Harley-Davidson started a new club for owners of Harleys in 1983, the Harley Owners Group. This is a place for anyone who owns a Harley-Davidson motorcycle. This group grows at tremendous rates. The firs year, there were about 90,000 members. Today, there are over 500,000 members.

In 1986, the Harley-Davidson Motor Company is traded on the New York Stock Exchange, the first time this has happened since the AMF merger years earlier. This was also the year that the famed Sportster gets the exclusive Revolution engine. 1988 brought the opening of a Harley museum, where there are memorabilia and the history of the company.

In 1990, the introduction of the FLSFT Fat Boy was a big deal. This motorcycle is considered a classic among Harley enthusiasts. In 1991, a $31 million facility was built for painting purposes in York, Pennsylvania. This helps the company grow as the need for motorcycles is at an all-time high. In 1993, Harley celebrates its 90th anniversary in Milwaukee with a family reunion parade, where an estimated 1 million Harleys are ridden. In 1995, the 30th Anniversary Ultra Classic Electra Glide is the first to introduce an electric sequential fuel injection. It was a remarkable feat for the company.

In 1997, a new state of the art distribution center is built. After it is all said and done, everything is moved to the new building which is sized at 217,000 square feet. 1998 brought some international relations when Harley built its first foreign production warehouse in Manaus, Brazil.

In the year 2000, the new feature of fuel injections is added to the softail line of motorcycles. Later that year, Harley-Davidson Motor Company introduces the Blast, a single cylinder motorcycle. The purpose of this cycle is to be for learning purposes.

In 2001, the team of Harley Davidson Racing introduced a new member to the team: a 17 year old girl name Jennifer Snyder. She was the first woman ever to win on the Formula USA Dirt Track Series. This was big news in the company, since a woman in this sport was rare, if not none existent in the past. It was certainly a pivotal moment.

Year 2003 brought the company's 100th anniversary. With over a hundred years of solid growth, Harley-Davidson can be admired as a company as well as a motorcycle producer. They have done nothing but grow over the years, and can be admired for being solid and reliable. Supplying our military with motorcycles in two wars, and supplying America with its toy ride, Harley-Davidson Motor Company is truly to be admired. Even today, Harley-Davidson is the prominent supplier of motorcycles in America. They are here to stay, and have 100 years to prove it. Whether you like motorcycles or not, one has got to admit that Harley-Davidson Motor Company is the best motorcycle company there has ever been.

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The History of Hilton Hotels

Hilton Hotels are upscale, full service properties catering to business travel and leisure guests. They are a chain of over 500 hotels all over the world from Rome to Omaha. Hilton Hotels are enjoying a phenomenal growth in online sales. Hilton hotels are the place for you if you want a distinctive hotel. The original company was founded in 1919 by Conrad Hilton.

Conrad Hilton was determined to maximize every square foot of hotel space and serve the hotel guest. Mr. Hilton bought his first hotel in Cisco, Texas in 1919. And, of course there's always Paris. Paris is the great-granddaughter of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton hotels and source of an estimated $300 million family fortune. Paris Hilton is the daughter of one of the sons of Mr. Hilton, a hotel magnate. Conrad Hilton (1887-1979) was born in San Antonio. He was determined that his hotel to be the best in every city and coined the phrase, "take me to the Hilton".

And, of course there's always Paris. Paris is the great-granddaughter of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton hotels and source of an estimated $300 million family fortune. Paris Hilton is the daughter of one of the sons of Mr. Hilton, a hotel magnate. Conrad Hilton (1887-1979).

Hilton hotels are known for featuring world class accommodations in the countries hottest destinations. The hotels are adding MP3-friendly alarm clocks, allowing guests to awaken to their own music. They are internationally known for their Hilton Meetings Business Centres. Hilton Hotels are known for a high level of comfort and prestige. The Port of San Diego and Hilton are planning to develop a 1200-room hotel on the waterfront adjacent to the San Diego Convention Center.

Mr. Hilton bought his first hotel in Cisco, Texas in 1919. And, of course there's always Paris. Paris is the great-granddaughter of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton hotels and source of an estimated $300 million family fortune. Paris Hilton is the daughter of one of the sons of Mr. Hilton, a hotel magnate. Conrad Hilton (1887-1979) was born in San Antonio. He was determined that his hotel to be the best in every city and coined the phrase, "take me to the Hilton".

Honors program effectiveness has grown from 34% in 2002 to 40% now. The program is designed to thank meeting planners who schedule events at Hilton Hotels worldwide. The program Members can earn both HHonors points and airline miles for the same business rate stay - what we call Double Dipping. MilePoint sponsors, in addition to the Hilton HHonors program, are America West, Continental, Delta, Northwest, TWA, US Airways and Hilton Hotels. The American Express Hilton Hhonors Program Credit card earns points for free stays at Hilton hotels.

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